FTTx (Fiber To The X: Fiber Access) is a new generation of fiber user access networks used to connect telecom operators and end-users. The FTTx network can be an active fiber network or a passive optical network. The cost of the dynamic optical fiber network is relatively high, and in fact, it is rarely used in the user access network. Hence, the FTTx network, commonly referred to at present, is a passive optical fiber network.
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(FTTx,x = H for home, P for premises, C for curb and N for node or neighborhood, O for office，SA for service area, B for Building)
FTTH fiber to the home, FTTP fiber to the premises, FTTC fiber to the roadside/cell, FTTN fiber to the node, FTTO fiber to the office, FTTSA fiber to the service area.
Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) is the dream and exploration of the technical direction that people have been pursuing for 20 years, but due to obstacles such as cost, technology, and demand, it has not yet been promoted and developed on a large scale. Because of this, many people of insight regard FTTx (especially fiber-to-the-home and fiber-to-the-resident) as an essential turning point in the recovery of the optical communications market. And it is expected that in the next few years, the FTTH network will have more excellent development.
According to the distance between the fiber and the user, it can be divided into the fiber to the cabinet (Fiber To The Cabinet; FTTCab), fiber to the curb (Fiber To The Curb; FTTC), fiber to the building (Fiber To The Building; FTTB) and fiber Four service forms including Fiber To The Home (FTTH). US operator Verizon refers to FTTB and FTTH as fiber to the premises (Fiber To The Premise; FTTP). These services can be collectively referred to as FTTx.
FTTC is currently the most important form of service. It mainly serves users in residential areas. The ONU equipment is placed in the roadside chassis, and the coaxial cable from the ONU is used to transmit CATV signals or twisted pairs to transfer telephone and Internet services. The transmission rate of FTTC is 155Mb/s. The interface between FTTC and the exchange office adopts the interface standard V5 established by ITU-T.
According to the service target, there are two types of FTTB: the user service of the apartment building and the other is the company line number service of the commercial building. Both of them set the ONU at the basement wiring box of the building, just the ONU of the apartment building. It is an extension of FTTC, and commercial buildings are for medium and large enterprise units and must increase the transmission rate to provide high-speed data, e-commerce, video conferencing, and other broadband services.
As for FTTH, ITU believes that it is FTTH from the optical fiber converter (or media converter MC) at the fiber end to the user’s desktop no more than 100 meters. FTTH extends the distance of optical fiber to the end user’s home so that the family can provide a variety of broadband services, such as VOD, shopping at home, class at home, etc., to provide more business opportunities. If combined with WLAN technology, broadband and mobile will be connected. You can achieve the future vision of broadband digital homes.
FTTP (fiber to the premise, fiber to the user’s location), a North American term, FTTP extends fiber optic cables to homes or businesses. Because optical fiber can provide more bandwidth than the twisted pair or coaxial cable used in the last mile, operators use it to provide voice, video, and data services. FTTP has a speed of 25M to 50Mbps or higher; in contrast, the maximum speed of other types of broadband services is about 5M to 6Mbps. Besides, FTTP also supports full symmetric functions.
FTTZ (Fiber To The Zone) refers to fiber to the cell. FTTx technology is mainly used for access networks, ranging from the central office equipment of the regional telecommunications room to the user terminal equipment. The original office equipment is the optical line terminal (Optical Line Terminal; OLT), and the user terminal equipment is the optical network unit (Optical Network Unit) Unit; ONU) or Optical Network Terminal (ONT).